The word of Environment is derived from the French word “Environ” which means “surrounding”. It is used to talk about many things. The Environment literally means surrounding and everything that affect an organism during its lifetime which it is collectively known as its environment (Fig. 1). Environment includes physical, chemical and other natural forces. In biology and ecology, the environment is all of the natural materials and living things, including sunlight. This is also called the natural environment. Organisms change in response to conditions in their environment.
Environmental science is a multidisciplinary science whose basic aspects have a direct relevance to every section of the society. Its main aspects are:
- Conservation of nature and natural resources,
- Conservation of biological diversity,
- Control of environmental pollution,
- Stabilization of human population and environment,
- Social issues in relation to development and environment, &
- Development of non-polluting renewable energy system and providing new dimension to nation’s security.
For the first time, in the middle of the 20th century, we saw our planet from space. From space, we see a small and fragile ball dominated not by human activity and edifice but by a pattern of clouds, oceans, greenery, and soils. Humanity’s inability to fit its activities into that pattern is changing planetary systems, fundamentally. Many such changes are accompanied by life-threatening hazards. This new reality, from which there is no escape, must be recognized – and managed.
Changing drivers, such as population growth, economic activities and consumption patterns, have placed increasing pressure on the environment. Environmental degradation also threatens all aspects of human well-being. Environment belongs to all the living beings and thus is, important for all. Each and every body of whatever occupation he or she may have, is affected by environmental issues like global warming, depletion of ozone layer, dwindling forest, energy resources, loss of global biodiversity, etc.